Lithium, the mineral known for its efficacy against bipolar disorder, has become one of the most effective go-to prescriptions for psychiatric disorders. What many do not know, however, is that lithium offers a host of other lesser-known benefits, many of which go far beyond brain health. Lithium orotate, one of the popular lithium supplements, is perhaps the most bioavailable lithium available. Look out for this form when looking for supplementation.
What is Lithium?
Lithium is a trace mineral in the same class as essential electrolyte minerals like sodium and potassium. Largely considered a drug, many medical doctors and nutrition authorities believe it to be a vital trace mineral and an essential nutrient. Many health organizations repeat its benefits for the body, setting a provisional recommended daily allowance (RDA) for adults at 1 mg per day.  Lithium orotate, which differs from prescription lithium carbonate, is lithium combined with orotic acid. It was developed by Dr. Hans Nieper.
The Seven Health Benefits of Lithium
Below is a brief list of the seven little-known health benefits of lithium. Remember that lithium orotate is the best option for lithium considering its safety and bioavailability. While this list is by no means exhaustive, it does provide a bit more insight into its amazing versatility.
1. Promotes Normal Brain Health
Studies have shown that lithium may increase grey matter volume in the prefrontal cortex region of the brain, most likely through the generation of new stem cells. This process is called neurogenesis, or the creation of new brain cells. Research also demonstrates lithium's neuroprotective potential and ability to discourage age-related, neurodegenerative brain shrinkage.  Research shows that smaller doses of lithium orotate can be used to maintain therapeutic brain levels of lithium for longer periods of time compared with lithium carbonate. These findings could revolutionize the field of brain research and neurodegenerative disease.
2. Supports Bone Health
The effects of calcium and phosphorus, two minerals integral to bone formation, may be enhanced through lithium supplementation. Some research indicates lithium's potential to support bone strength. Lithium may also stimulate bone formation. 
3. Promotes Focus and Attention
In one randomized, double-blind study comparing a popular mind medicine with lithium, it was found that lithium was comparable at addressing the most common symptoms of short attention span and even secondary symptoms like mood imbalance. 
4. Therapeutic Support for Tourette Syndrome?
Tourette's syndrome is a motor system disorder, with symptoms that include involuntary muscle movements and uncontrollable vocal sounds. A preliminary yet promising study found that lithium had a better outcome than a commonly-prescribed drug. Additionally, the group given lithium experienced a significant and dramatic decrease in the number of tics and involuntary vocal sounds. No side effects were reported in the study and recurrence of symptoms in the lithium group were still clear months later. 
5. Supports Immune Health
Source: 7 Benefits of Lithium